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MLearning  

2012-02-13 14:16:27|  分类: 远程英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The term M-Learning, or "mobile learning", has different meanings for different communities. Although related to e-learning and distance education, it is distinct in its focus on learning across contexts and learning with mobile devices. One definition of mobile learning is: Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies.[1] In other words mobile learning decreases limitation of learning location with the mobility of general portable devices.

The term covers: learning with portable technologies including but not limited to handheld computers, MP3 players, notebooks and mobile phones. M-learning focuses on the mobility of the learner, interacting with portable technologies, and learning that reflects a focus on how society and its institutions can accommodate and support an increasingly mobile population. There is also a new direction in MLearning that adds mobility of the instructor and includes creation of learning materials "on-the-spot, "in the field" using predominately smartphone with special software such as AHG Cloud Note. Using mobile tools for creating learning aides and materials becomes an important part of informal learning.

M-learning is convenient in that it is accessible from virtually anywhere. M-Learning, like other forms of E-learning, is also collaborative; sharing is almost instantaneous among everyone using the same content, which leads to the reception of instant feedback and tips. M-Learning also brings strong portability by replacing books and notes with small RAMs, filled with tailored learning contents. In addition, it is simple to utilize mobile learning for a more effective and entertaining experience.

 

History
[edit] Pre-1970s

Arguably the first instance of mobile learning goes back as far as 1901 when Linguaphone released a series of language lessons on wax cylinders. This was followed up in later years as technology improved, to cover compact cassette tapes, 8 track tape, and CDs[2][dubiousdiscuss]


[edit] 1970s, 1980s

Alan Kay and his colleagues in the Learning Research Group at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center [PARC] propose the Dynabook as a book-sized computer to run dynamic simulations for learning. Their interim Dynabooks are the first networked workstations


[edit] 1990s

In May 1991, Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) in partnership with Orange Grove Middle School of Tucson, Arizona, use mobile computers connected by wireless networks for the 'Wireless Coyote' project.[3] Universities in Europe and Asia develop and evaluate mobile learning for students. Palm corporation offers grants to universities and companies who create and test the use of Mobile Learning on the PalmOS platform. Knowledgility creates the first mobile learning modules for CCNA, A+ and MCSE certification using the core tools that later became LMA.


[edit] 2000s

The European Commission funds the major multi-national MOBIlearn and M-Learning projects.

Companies were formed that specialize in three core areas of mobile learning.


Authoring and publishing
Delivery and Tracking
Content Development

Conferences and trade shows were created to specifically deal with mobile learning and handheld education, including: mLearn, WMUTE, and IADIS Mobile Learning international conference series, ICML in Jordan, Mobile Learning in Malaysia, Handheld Learning in London, SALT Mobile in USA.


[edit] Analysis (costs / benefits, forecast)
[edit] Value

The value of mobile learning[4] --Tutors commented on the value of mobile learning as follows.


It is important to bring new technology into the classroom.
It will be more light weight device compare to books, PCs, etc.
Mobile learning could be utilised as part of a learning approach which uses different types of activities (or a blended learning approach).
Mobile learning supports the learning process rather than being integral to it.
Mobile learning needs to be used appropriately, according to the groups of students involved.
Mobile learning can be a useful add-on tool for students with special needs. However, for SMS and MMS this might be dependent on the students’ specific disabilities or difficulties involved.
Good IT support is needed.
Mobile learning can be used as a ‘hook’ to re-engage disaffected youth.
It is necessary to have enough devices for classroom use .
[edit] Challenges

Technical challenges include


Connectivity and battery life
Screen size and key size[5]
Ability for authors to visualize mobile phones for delivery
Possibilities to meet required bandwidth for nonstop/fast streaming
Number of file/assets' formats supported by a specific device
Content security or copyright issue from authoring group
Multiple standards, multiple screen sizes, multiple operating systems
Reworking existing e-Learning materials for mobile platforms

Social and educational challenges include


Accessibility and cost barriers for end users: Digital divide.
How to assess learning outside the classroom
How to support learning across many contexts
Content's security (or) pirating issues
Frequent changes in device models/technologies/functionality etc.
Developing an appropriate theory of learning for the mobile age
Conceptual differences between e- and m-learning
Design of technology to support a lifetime of learning[6][7]
Tracking of results and proper use of this information
No restriction on learning timetable
Personal and private information and content
No demographic boundary
Disruption of students' personal and academic lives[8]
Access to and use of the technology in developing countries[9]
[edit] Growth

Over the past ten years mobile learning has grown from a minor research interest to a set of significant projects in schools, workplaces, museums, cities and rural areas around the world. The mLearning community is still fragmented, with different national perspectives, differences between academia and industry, and between the school, higher education and lifelong learning sectors.

Current areas of growth include:


Testing, surveys, job aids and just-in-time (J.I.T.) learning
Location-based and contextual learning
Social-networked mobile learning
Mobile educational gaming
Deliver M-Learning to cellular phones using two way SMS messaging and voice-based CellCasting (podcasting to phones with interactive assessments)

According to a report by Ambient Insight in 2008, "the US market for Mobile Learning products and services is growing at a five-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21.7% and revenues reached $538 million in 2007. The data indicate that the demand is relatively immune from the recession."[10] The findings of the report indicate that the largest demand throughout the forecast period is for custom development services, content conversion, and media services and that the healthcare sector accounts for 20% of the total US market for mobile learning.


[edit] Future

Technologies currently being researched for mobile learning include:[11]


Location aware learning
Point-and-shoot learning with camera phones and 2D codes
Near Field Communications (NFC) secure transactions
Sensors and accelerometers in mobile devices in behavioral based learning
Mobile content creation (including user generated content)
Games and simulation for learning on mobile devices
Context-aware ubiquitous learning
Augmented reality on mobile devices
[edit] Delivery


Smartphones are one of the platforms used for mobile learning.

While many think of mobile learning as delivering eLearning on small form factor devices, or often referred to as eLearning “lite”, it has the potential to do much more than deliver courses, or parts of courses. It includes the use of mobile/handheld devices to perform any of the following:


Deliver Education/Learning
Foster Communications/Collaboration
Conduct Assessments/Evaluations
Provide Access to Performance Support/Knowledge
Capture Evidence of Learning Activity

Today, any number of portable devices can quickly and easily deliver and support these functions. Cell or smartphones, multi-game devices, personal media players (PMPs), personal digital assistants (PDAs), or wireless single-purpose devices can help deliver coaching and mentoring, conduct assessments and evaluations (e.g., quizzes; tests; surveys/polls; and certifications), provide on-the-job support and access to information, education and references, and deliver podcasts, update alerts, forms and checklists. In these ways, mobile learning can enhance and support more traditional learning modes, making it more portable and accessible. Mobile devices can also serve as powerful data collection tools and facilitate the capture of user created content.[11]

New mobile technology, such as hand-held cellular based devices, is playing a large role in redefining how we receive information. The recent advances in mobile technology are changing the primary purpose of mobile devices from making or receiving calls to retrieving the latest information on any subject. "Numerous agencies including the Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Intelligence community, and law enforcement are utilizing mobile technology are utilizing mobile technology for information management." [12]


[edit] Approaches


The use of mobile learning in the military is becoming increasingly common due to low cost and high portability.
[edit] In the classroom
Students using handheld computers, PDAs, smartphones or handheld voting systems (such as clickers) in a classroom or lecture room (Tremblay 2010).
Students using mobile devices(such as a Pocket PC) in the classroom to enhance group collaboration among students and instructors.
[edit] For blended learning
See also: Blended learning

Mobile learning can provide support that enhances training in a corporate business or other classroom environment.

Class management

The mobile phone (through text SMS notices) can be used especially for distance education or with students whose course requires them to be highly mobile and in particular to communicate information regarding availability of assignment results, venue changes and cancellations, etc. It can also be of value to business people e.g. sales representatives who do not wish to waste time away from their busy schedules to attend formal training events.

Podcasting

Podcasting consists of listening to audio recordings of lectures, and can be used to review live lectures (Clark & Westcott (2007) and to provide opportunities for students to rehearse oral presentations. Podcasts may also provide supplemental information to enhance traditional lectures (McGarr 2009) (Steven & Teasley 2009).

Psychological research suggests that university students who download podcast lectures achieve substantially higher exam results than those who attend the lecture in person, but only in cases in which students take notes (Callaway & Ewen 2009).

Podcasts maybe be delivered using syndication, although it should be noted that this method of delivery is not always easily adopted (Lee, Miller & Newnham 2009).


[edit] Outdoor
Learning in museums or galleries with handheld or wearable technologies
Learning outdoors, for example on field trips.
Continuous learning and portable tools for military personnel.
[edit] At work
On the job training for someone who accesses training on a mobile device "just in time" to solve a problem or gain an update.
[edit] Lifelong learning and self-learning

The use of personal technology to support informal or lifelong learning, such as using handheld dictionaries and other devices for language learning.

Mobile technologies and approaches, i.e. Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL), are also used to assist in language learning. For instance handheld computers, cell phones, but also podcasting (Horkoff Kayes2008) have been used for helping people to acquire a language.


[edit] Other
Improving levels of literacy, numeracy and participation in education amongst young adults.
Using the communication features of a mobile phone as part of a larger learning activity (e.g.: sending media or texts into a central portfolio, or exporting audio files from a learning platform to your phone)
[edit] Technologies

Mobile devices and personal technologies that can support mobile learning, include:


E-book
OutStart,_Inc.
Handheld audio and multimedia guides, in museums and galleries
Handheld game console, modern gaming consoles such as Sony PSP or Nintendo DS
Personal audio player, e.g. for listening to audio recordings of lectures (podcasting)
Personal Digital Assistant, in the classroom and outdoors
Tablet computer
UMPC, mobile phone, camera phone and SmartPhone

Technical and delivery support for mobile learning:


3GP For compression and delivery method of audiovisual content associated with Mobile Learning
GPRS mobile data service, provides high speed connection and data transfer rate
Wi-Fi gives access to instructors and resources via internet

Authoring:


Learning Mobile Author, e.g. for authoring and publishing WAP, Java ME and Smartphone
[edit] See also
IAMLearn
Instructional Simulation
International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning
mHealth
Offline mobile learning
Smartphone
[edit] References
^ "Guidelines for learning/teaching/tutoring in a mobile environment". MOBIlearn. October 2003. pp. 6. http://www.mobilearn.org/download/results/guidelines.pdf. Retrieved June 8, 2009. 
^ "Mobile Learning Community". Mobile Learning History. 2010. http://trainandgo.blogspot.com/2010/01/mobile-learning-in-cortina.html
^ Wireless Coyote Wayne C. Grant. (1993). Wireless Coyote: A Computer-Supported Field Trip, Communications of the ACM - Special issue on technology in K–12 education, Volume 36 Issue 5, May 1993, 57-59
^ Mobile learning in practice:Piloting a mobile learning teachers’ toolkit in further education colleges.C.Savill etc.,p8
^ Maniar, N.; Bennett, E., Hand, S. & Allan, G (2008). "The effect of mobile phone screen size on video based learning". Journal of Software 3 (4): 51–61. 
^ Sharples, M. (2000). "The design of personal mobile technologies for lifelong learning". Computers & Education 34 (3-4): 177–193. doi:10.1016/S0360-1315(99)00044-5
^ Moore, J. (2009). "A portable document search engine to support off-line mobile learning". Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning. Barcelona, Spain. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/17441/
^ Masters, K.; Ng'ambi D. (2007). "After the broadcast: disrupting health sciences’ students' lives with SMS". Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning. Lisbon, Portugal. pp. 171–175. ISBN 978-972-8924-36-2
^ Masters, K. (2005). "Low-key m-learning: a realistic introduction of m-learning to developing countries". Seeing, Understanding, Learning in the Mobile Age. Budapest, Hungary, April 2005. http://www.fil.hu/mobil/2005/Masters_final.pdf
^ Adkins, S.S. (December 2008). "The US Market for Mobile Learning Products and Services: 2008-2013 Forecast and Analysis". Ambient Insight. pp. 5. http://www.ambientinsight.com/Resources/Documents/AmbientInsight_2008-2013_US_MobileLearning_Forecast_ExecutiveOverview.pdf. Retrieved June 8, 2009. 
^ a b "Mobile Learning Update". Learning Consortium Perspectives. 2008. pp. 3, 5–13, 17. http://masieweb.com/p7/MobileLearningUpdate.pdf. Retrieved June 9, 2009. 
^ Chet Hosmer, Carlton Jeffcoat, Matthew Davis, Thomas McGibbon "Use of Mobile Technology for Information Collection and Dissemination", Data & Analysis Center for Software, March 2011

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